An assessment of danger during spring floods and ice jams in the north of European Russia
- Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, 119991, Russia
Abstract. Heavy ice jams during spring floods are common on rivers in the northern European Russia. Climate changes of the last decades have caused significant changes in the ice regime of rivers. Continuous freezing periods, followed by sludge ice jams and late freezing at high water levels, occur with increasing frequency. Winter break-ups have become more frequent. The most recent catastrophic flood in the area under study took place in the spring of 2013. The probability of floods and ice jamming is evaluated; the duration and depth of inundation at various water levels are calculated with an assessment of the accompanying economic losses in the Northern Russia.