Journal cover Journal topic
Proceedings of the International Association of Hydrological Sciences An open-access publication for refereed proceedings in hydrology
Journal topic
Download
Short summary
The quality of drinking water is dependent of its source(s) and means of collection. The water available for drinking in the study area accessible through groundwater exploration was assessed to determine its quality and checked by the World Health Organization (WHO) drinking water standards for the various parameters considered. Physico-chemical parameter and bacteriological tests were carried out on selected borehole sites following due procedure, precautions and the results analyzed.
PIAHS | Articles | Volume 384
Proc. IAHS, 384, 81–84, 2021
https://doi.org/10.5194/piahs-384-81-2021
Proc. IAHS, 384, 81–84, 2021
https://doi.org/10.5194/piahs-384-81-2021

Pre-conference publication 16 Nov 2021

Pre-conference publication | 16 Nov 2021

Assessment of Drinking Waters Quality Collected from Boreholes in Afe Babalola University Ado-Ekiti (ABUAD)

Assessment of Drinking Waters Quality Collected from Boreholes in Afe Babalola University Ado-Ekiti (ABUAD)
Adeshina S. Adebanjo Adeshina S. Adebanjo
  • Department of Civil Engineering, Afe Babalola University, Ado Ekiti, Ekiti State, Nigeria

Correspondence: Adeshina S. Adebanjo (adebanjo.as@abuad.edu.ng)

Abstract

The quality of drinking water is dependent of its source(s) and means of collection. The water available for drinking in the study area is accessible through groundwater exploration. This research was carried out to determine the quality of water from the selected boreholes within the university and checked by the World Health Organization (WHO) drinking water standards for the various parameters considered. Samples were gotten from seven (7) of the sited boreholes and various physico-chemical parameter tests such as turbidity test, conductivity test, pH test, copper test, manganese test, chloride test, sulphate test, chromium test, nitrate test and cadmium test and bacteriological tests as total plate count, total coliform count and faecal coliform count were carried out following due procedure, precautions and the results analyzed. The results show that most samples were satisfactory for the tests carried out while only two (samples from Behind Admin and Engineering) were unsatisfactory in turbidity while one sample (sample from Back of College 2) was unsatisfactory in the cadmium test. WQI showed that the water samples had excellent qualities except for that from Back of College 2 which had poor quality and is unsuitable consumption.

1 Introduction

Groundwater is one of the most important sources for drinking water and domestic activities in Africa. It is likely to be less affected than surface resources by climate variability, higher temperatures, evaporation and contamination. While the people of Ado Ekiti have access to various water sources for their domestic usage, the most sought and reliable source of drinking water is the groundwater accessed through borehole (Oyebode et al., 2019). It is the cheapest of the reliable drinking water sources. Studies carried out by Odeyemi et al. (2013) and Oyebode et al. (2019) showed that other water sources in Ekiti are exposed too much more contamination including physical, chemical and bacteriological. The quality of water tells a lot about the wellbeing of the consumer and also indirectly influences economic productivity. Afe Babalola University Ado-Ekiti (ABUAD) is the most growing Nigerian university in recent times, having a population of over 9000 people. Majority of students and academic staff members prefer to drink water from packaged water in sachets and bottles because of lack of confidence in the purity level of the borehole waters in the institutions. Water supplied through boreholes in ABUAD for so long has been perceived as unhealthy for drinking by staff and students and this perception has led to the limited use and has created an inconvenience financially as students of the university have to spend money on the purchase of drinking water daily. This has also affected the environment in a lot of ways because plastic sachets and bottles are found in excess as a part of waste generated in the university. It is for this reason that this research is being carried out. This study was embarked on to begin the needed periodic assessment of the quality of groundwater in this area.

2 Materials and Methods

2.1 Study area and Sampling sites

The study area is ABUAD, a young private university having a population of about 11 000 people. It is located in eastern part of Ado-Ekiti along Ijan road, Ado Ekiti, Ekiti State, Nigeria, lying on area of about 130 ha within latitude 73559.16′′ and 73631.32′′ N and longitude 5186.61′′ and 51837.56′′ E. This research was carried out on water samples taken from seven of the boreholes sited in ABUAD. ABUAD has a geology that is of basement complex, igneous rock of South-Western, Nigeria (Ogungbemi et al., 2013; Oyegoke et al., 2015; Oladimeji and Ogungbemi, 2013; Ogundana and Talabi, 2014) comprising of crystalline basement rocks which include coarse grained charnokite (the most abundant in Ado Ekiti), fine grained granite, medium grained granite and porphyritic biotite, medium grained granite and quartzite as its lithological rock units (Oyegoke et al., 2020). Its climate is tropical with distinct wet and dry seasons that are associated with the prevalence of maritime south westerly monsoon winds from the Atlantic Ocean and the dry continental north easterly harmattan winds from the Sahara Desert having abundant rainwater between May and October with substantial rainwater deficit between November and April (Oyegoke et al., 2020).

https://piahs.copernicus.org/articles/384/81/2021/piahs-384-81-2021-f01

Figure 1Study area with boreholes location (© Google Maps 2018).

Table 1Method for testing parameters.

Download Print Version | Download XLSX

Physico-chemical parameters tests as well as bacteriological tests were carried out on the collected water samples from the boreholes according to the procedures outlined by the World Health Organisation standards for drinking water (WHO, 2004, 2006, 2008). The physico-chemical tests include turbidity test, electrical conductivity test, pH test, copper test, manganese test, chloride test, sulphate test, chromium test, nitrate test and cadmium test and the bacteriological tests include total plate count, total coliform count and faecal coliform count. Water quality Index (WQI) was used to analyse the parameters tested in the groundwater samples collected.

2.2 Water Quality Index

The weighted arithmetic index method was used to determine the WQI of groundwater from the selected locations. Thirteen physico-chemical parameters i.e. Turbidity, pH, EC, Cu2+, NO3-, SO42-, Cl, Cd2+, Mn2+, Cr2+, TPC, TCC, and FCC were used to calculate WQI. The formula to calculate the WQI is given as (Yisa and Jimoh, 2010; Tyagi et al., 2014):

(1) q i = C i S i 100

Where, qi, Ci, and Si indicate quality rating scale, concentration of ith parameter, and standard value of ith parameter respectively.

(2)Relative weight,wi=1Si;(3)and WQI=wiqiwi

Table 2Quality parameters for samples from boreholes.

Download Print Version | Download XLSX

Table 3Water Quality Index.

Download Print Version | Download XLSX

3 Result and Discussion

The results of the various parameter tests that were carried out on the collected samples are as presented in Table 2. Results in Table 2 when compared with the WHO standards for drinking water (WHO, 2004, 2006, 2008; Gray, 2008) show that, water samples taken from all boreholes except for those at Engineering (1.24 NTU) and Behind Admin (1.16 NTU) are of values greater than the set standard of 1 NTU in turbidity, samples from all the boreholes fall within the standards for pH of drinking water which between 6.5–8.5 and the electrical conductivity of 1000 µS/cm. Copper ions detected in the samples fall within acceptable limit of 2.00 mg/L by standard, the amount of nitrate contained in the samples falls within acceptable limit of 50.00 mg/L by standard, sulphate of the samples falls within acceptable limit of 100.00 mg/L by standard, the chloride ions in the samples fall within acceptable limit of 250.00 mg/L by standard, cadmium ion was only detected in the borehole at the Back of College 2 (0.004 mg/L) and was in an amount exceeding the acceptable limit of 0.003 mg/L by standard, the manganese ions in the samples fall within acceptable limit of 0.5 mg/L by standard, chromium ion was only detected in the samples from boreholes at WEMA Hostel, Main Gate, Amphi-Theatre, and Engineering, and were in amounts within the acceptable limit of 0.05 mg/L by standard. Total Plate Count results revealed that all the water samples contained no aerobic bacteria, Total Coliform Count results and analysis revealed that samples contained no coliform colonies, Faecal Coliform Count results and analysis revealed that all the borehole samples contained no coliform colonies.

This conforms to earlier study done by Adeosun and Omietimi (2020) on some parts of Ado-Ekiti where they found physico-chemical parameters of impurities to be insignificant. Although, other studies done in this region showed significant contaminants level, but they were on shallow well. Not much has been done on groundwater accessible through borehole.

4 Conclusions

The results and analysis of the physico-chemical quality parameters of the water samples from the seven boreholes taken for this study in ABUAD revealed that, all water samples when compared with the permissible limits presented by WHO standard are

satisfactory in pH, electrical conductivity, nitrate, sulphate and chloride; are satisfactory in examined heavy metal constituents except for that from borehole at Back of College 2 which was unsatisfactory in cadmium ion constituent. Turbidity level was within the limit for acceptability for samples from all boreholes except for those at Engineering and Behind Admin which will therefore need to be coagulated, filtered and disinfected before drinking. Investigation with Water Quality Index (WQI) calculation showed that all water samples were excellent quality except for samples collected at Back of College 2 which showed poor quality.

Results and analysis of the Total Plate Count, Total Coliform Count and Faecal Coliform Count revealed that there is no form of bacteriological contamination in all the borehole samples.

Water from the boreholes in ABUAD can generally be regarded as been good and fit for drinking and for domestic use while further investigation should be conducted on that at the Back of College 2.

Data availability

No data sets were used in this article.

Competing interests

The contact author has declared that there are no competing interests.

Disclaimer

Publisher's note: Copernicus Publications remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Special issue statement

This article is part of the special issue “Hydrology of Large River Basins of Africa”. It is a result of the 4th International Conference on the “Hydrology of the Great Rivers of Africa”, Cotonou, Benin, 13–20 November 2021.

Acknowledgements

I appreciate the efforts and support from Paul Edoh of Afe Babalola University in the laboratory tests.

References

Adeosun O. A. and Omietimi E. J.: Groundwater quality in parts of Ado-Ekiti Metropolis, South-Western Nigeria, Int. J. Sci. Res. Publ., 10, 227–254, https://doi.org/10.29322/IJSRP.10.08.2020.p10431, 2020. 

Gray, N. F.: Drinking Water Quality: Problems and Solutions, 2nd Edn., Cambridge University Press, UK, 520 pp., 2008. 

Odeyemi, A. T., Adebayo, A. A., and Adeosun, O. M.: Bacteriological and physicochemical studies of three major dams in Ekiti State, Nigeria, J. Environ. Earth Sci., 3, 210–218, 2013. 

Ogundana, A. K. and Talabi, A. O.: Groundwater Potential of College of Engineering, Afe Babalola University, Ado-Ekiti, Southwestern, Am. J. Water Res., 2, 25–30, https://doi.org/10.12691/ajwr-2-1-4, 2014.  

Ogungbemi, O. S, Badmus, O. G., Ayeni, O. G., and Ologe, O.: Geoeletric Investigation of Aquifer Vulnerability within Afe Babalola University, Ado-Ekiti, Southwestern, Nigeria, IOSR J. Appl. Geol. Geophys., 1, 28–34, 2013. 

Oladimeji, L. A. and Ogungbemi, O. S.: Evaluation of Aquifer Protective Capacity of Ground Water Resources within Afe Babalola University, Ado – Ekiti, Southwestern Nigeria. Transnational Journal of Science and Technology, 3, 1–16, 2013. 

Oyebode, O. J., Adebanjo, A. S., ND-Ezuma, S. R.: Conditions of available sources of water for domestic use in selected communities in Ado-Ekiti, Afr. J. Environ. Sci. Technol., 13, 84–90, https://doi.org/10.5897/AJEST2018.2509, 2019. 

Oyegoke, S. O., Oyebode, J. O., Olowe, K. O., and Ekom, E.: Exploitation of Groundwater in Fractured Basement of Ado-Ekiti, Nigeria, Am. J. Eng. Res., 4, 55–63, 2015. 

Oyegoke, S. O., Ayeni, O. O., Olowe, K. O., Adebanjo, A. S., and Fayomi, O. O.: Effectiveness of Geophysical Assessment of Boreholes Drilled in Basement Complex Terrain at Afe Babalola University using Electromagnetic (E.M.) Method, Nigerian Journal of Technology, 39, 36–41, https://doi.org/10.4314/njt.v39i1.4, 2020. 

Tyagi, S., Singh, P., Sharma, B., and Singh, R.: Assessment of water quality for drinking purpose in District Pauri of Uttarkhand India, Appl. Ecol. Environ. Sci., 2, 94–99, 2014. 

WHO: Guidelines for Drinking-water Quality, 3rd Edn., 1, World Health Organization, China, 515 pp., 2004. 

WHO: Guidelines for Drinking-water Quality, Incorporating 1st Addendum to the 3rd Edn., Volume 1-Recommendations, World Health Organization, Geneva, 515 pp., 2006. 

WHO: Guidelines for drinking-water quality, 3rd Edn., 1, Recommendations, Incorporating first and second addenda, Vol. 1, World Health Organization, Geneva, 668 pp., 2008. 

Yisa, J. and Jimoh, T.: Analytical studies on water quality index of river Landzu, Am. J. Appl. Sci., 7, 453–458, 2010. 

Publications Copernicus
Download
Short summary
The quality of drinking water is dependent of its source(s) and means of collection. The water available for drinking in the study area accessible through groundwater exploration was assessed to determine its quality and checked by the World Health Organization (WHO) drinking water standards for the various parameters considered. Physico-chemical parameter and bacteriological tests were carried out on selected borehole sites following due procedure, precautions and the results analyzed.
Citation