Spatial and temporal variations of winter discharge under climate change: Case study of rivers in European Russia
- Department of Land Hydrology, Lomonosov Moscow State University, GSP-1, Leninskie Gory, Moscow, 119991, Russian Federation
Keywords: Climate changes, water balance, winter low-water runoff, freezing depth, thaws
Abstract. An important problem in hydrology is the re-evaluation of the current resources of surface and underground waters in the context of ongoing climate changes. The main feature of the present-day changes in water regime in the major portion of European Russia (ER) is the substantial increase in low-water runoff, especially in winter. In this context, some features of the spatial–temporal variations of runoff values during the winter low-water period are considered. Calculations showed that the winter runoff increased at more than 95% of hydrological gauges. Changes in the minimum and average values of runoff during winter low-water period and other characteristics are evaluated against the background of climate changes in the recent decades. The spatial and temporal variability of winter runoff in European Russia is evaluated for the first time.